Autobiographical fragments OSIAS STENZLER
I'll try to write some biographical data of my great-grandmother, of my great-grandfather and of my grandparents, of my parents, brothers and sisters, transmitted by word of mouth from my parents, meaning they are authentic, and from a cousin of mine, born in 1944 - New York.
About my great- grandfather I know that, he was a Sames at a synagogue in Radauti city. If he had another occupation, I do not know, or if he had children, I still do not know, but I know quite a lot about grandfather.
My maternal grandfather was born in 1848 year - named Jehoischie (Sike), the son of Sames.
The grandfather had the craft of tailor. With the first wife with whom he lived, there were born 8 children: 3 sons and 5 daughters. His first wife died at the age of 37-38 years. The grandfather remarried a year later with a young woman, from whose marriage there have not been born any children. The first wife borne the name of Chaia, in Hebrew language and Klara in German, and the second one, was called Miza.
The children of the grandfather he had with the two wives, Chaia and Miza I do not know anything about.
I do not know the order in which they were born, but their names are these:
The traces remained from tailoring in the grandparent’s time: were scraps of cloth (waste), spools of thread, with whom the grandfather worked. We found these traces in the attic of the house where we lived in the Norocului street 20 (Indengasse).
The grandfather, in addition to tailoring, was also occupied around the house, with the growth of turkeys and turkey-hen, and was also having a goat, in order to have milk for his large family. The grandfather worked his job until his death. He died at the age of 64 years. At his death there were only 3 children at home in Radauti city, the other 6 children, 3 sons and 3 daughters, emigrated to America and Canada during the years 1894 -1911.
Only 2 of the children of the grandparents stayed here in Bucovina. My mother and a bigger sister of the mother went to Iasi where they married and settled in this city. From the grandparents’ children, some of them boys, were workers and some were sellers in grocery and the girls were tailors and lingeries workers. One of them was an aid singer at the cantor’s synagogue. Those who emigrated in USA and Canada, all of them have married, forming families whose descendants are still living there today – I know a little about them - because I managed to resume the contact with a cousin of my mother's side, of the city of New York in 1954 – 1956 years. So far, we maintain a regular contact by mail (1983). As far as I know, no one of these descendants emigrated to the state of Israel, so far in 1983 ...
My mother's bigger sister settled in Iaşi city, got married there, forming a family. Her husband was a worker. He was a man of a wide culture, a supporter of the socialist movement, he worked as a foreman job, in the army barracks in the city of Iasi. During the pogrom in Iasi, he and his son-in –law, were taken to the police prefecture where both were shot.
My mother’s sister suffered greatly from her adored and loved husband, dying of longing for him, 5 months after his death.
Following this marriage, there were born 5 children, 2 boys and 3 girls, including one who was married to a barber - died from a stomach operation. Two boys, Leibu and Shloim, went to Israel with their families and children, after the war, and the 2 girls who got married in Iasi, the eldest one having 2 children and youngest, one child, they also leaving to Israel. A boy of the eldest cousin, married here in Romania and lives in Botosani, working as an engineer at a factory, and his wife is a pediatrician and is working at the hospital in the same town, they have two children, a girl and a boy, who is now 6 years (1983).
About my father
My father comes from a family - from the former province of Galicia, Stofeiani city, annexed to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was born in the town of Podhaieriki in 1876. He came to Radauti in 1902-1903, where he met my mother, Ester Stenzler, born in the town of Radauti in 1881, on January 11, whom he married in 1904. From this marriage there were born until about 1920-9 children, of whom one died at an year and a half (a boy), and the other 8, have lived up to the second world war. The father and the mother were not civilly married, but they had only a religious marriage. Hence, the different names that their children bore, from the mother’s side or my father's side, and of the grandmother’s, as: Stenzler, Soicher or Kolber, names that have been registered in the birth registries of Radauti and Vama place, both in Suceava county.
My father was a sort worker at the Vama lumber factory, in 1903-1906. In 1907 year, he moved to the Radauti city, where he also worked at a lumber factory, until it was destroyed by a fire in 1910 year. After this fire, he chose instead of moving to another location – to a lumber factory – he entered into a workshop where chiffon were filled, at some Guttman, Putnei str., former Voitinel str., where today they are also doing this work. Here he suffered an accident at work, not wearing the protection goggles and while he was filling the chiffon bottle, it exploded and a shard or a piece of glass broke into his left eye. Following this accident that eye could not be recovered and was removed and was he was left with one eye. All his life – for how long he lived - he wore glasses to partially mask the lost eye.
My father was a fanatical religious man and kept all religious requirements according to the Bible, the way his parents educated him at home. It is known that Jews in Poland were very religious.
After his misfortune – with the eye - dad went to a rough work, meaning he was engaging to cut firewood, to the people of the city, from whose work, he was gaining his daily livelihood.
It is true that my father also knew how to work some carpentry, but where we lived, he did not have space to make a room for this work, so he chose to do the work shown above. The home my mother inherited from the grandmother, consists of one room, about the 5x3 m, with two pillars leaned in the middle of the room, one window at sunset and two windows to the east, toward the courtyard, a porch that continued with a small barn, with a glass partition, also to the westward. This small house was pasted to the right and to the left by other two other homes, so that, we did not have our toilet, being forced to use it together with that of the neighbors.
At the outbreak of the World War of 1914-1918, the father was aged 38 years and although he had one eye missing, feared not be taken into the army. They mobilized him to dig trenches – that in the army which was made at the Austrians, he was a corporal and decided to leave to a refuge in Czechoslovakia, where he stayed in Bohemia Maraviga-Ostrov, for 4 years, until his return in 1919, at the end of the war, so, the mother stayed with us, five children, of which the eldest was 9 years old, and the smallest was 2 years old. Because of this fear he decided to seek a refuge. The mother, alone, took care of us, the children, for 4 years.
Once my father came home from refuge, in those years 1919-1926, he began again to work at cutting wood to people in the city, having now an aid from our side, his children. We who were already pretty big, of 5-6 years,were therefore going with him to help him to put the wood - which he was cracking, and we were stacking, so, the meal was plentiful, regarding the food. By our help, the financial situation was much improved. Although I was an apprentice and my brother too, we continued to give him our aid at work. Apart from the wood aid, my brother and I, who were already gaining at our jobs, each of us gave them, some money aid, depending on our possibilities.
This winter the work was harder, both for the father and for the children, because we were not equipped with the wam cloths, more particularly, with shoes, because after war, you could not find this too much, nor the money for something like this, we could not gather ourselves, the world being very upset.
And yet, in these living conditions, at the edge of survival, in our family, there came into the world three children: 2 boys and a girl, up to 1923-1924 years. By 1927 year, my father also delt with the wood cutting, and in the years 1927 to 1930, he dealt with an itinerant stall, selling candies, soda, rolls, croissants and bread, which he took with a commission, or with a fee from the owners.
My father was an honest man, very religious and bigot, the way I mentioned before, he never murmured against his fate.
In 1930 year, in early May, he decided to go to a sister of his, who lived then in the city of Kolomea (in Galicia), thinking not to return home to his family, because a sister of ours, tangled with a boy in Chernivtsi, who was working in Radauti, where he was a baker by trade, he was earning then a lot of money, it's true that he was a professional, searched and well paid (200 lei per night, 1929-30). In addition to this quality, he had also others, he used to sing very nice, and he was a very good dancer, but he was unfortunately a drunk. Our sister got pregnant, a fact that she hid from the parents, as long as she could. A month or two before my sister gave birth, my father told my mother about his decision to leave to Radauti to his sisters. Dad loved mother very much, but could not overcome her bigot and religious views- to stay yet at home, - and decided to leave.
It happened that I met with my father on 2 or 3 May, 1930, on the Voitinel way, from where he started to go towards home. I accompanied him for half the way and then he revealed to me the truth – the reason - that he is ashamed of people who could face him. I tried to persuade him not to leave his family, but all was in vain. At departure he was wearing the good suit that he had, and a coat that he had in his backpack on his back. He was wearing the watch with a metal double chain, they used to wear. Money – I do not know how many he had – I do not think he could have a lot of money. He wanted to cross the border through Berhomet, in order to get to his sister in Kolomea. On his way to the border he was attacked by some criminals who robbed and beated him, until he became unconscious, after they threw him into a ditch, where he was found by some people, who have been there in a fair day, in Berhomet city. Coincidentally, there was also a Jew, by profession a shoemaker named Moritz Weber, who recognized him, after which, the Jew brought him home, by a bus which was circulating there. When he was brought home, he was not able to speak anything, neither to show any signs, in order to indicate what happened. Only that he was full with signs of blows with a hard object over his body, including the head. My father died 24 hours after being brought home. He was still young, he had 54 years old and his children have been orphaned by the father, the main pillar and supporter of the family. We were going to get worse.The Police which has been announced about this case, did not seek to discover these villains. In this way, my father ended tragically his life, he, who lived in the faith of God, like Job, enduring this mean life, which I tried to describe in these few lines. Also in those places after 2-3 years, there was also killed another lumberjack, Shloim, and only then the police started investigations. This villain has betrayed himself in the meantime and was arrested and handed over to the court in Radauti, learning all this from my brother's stories, through letters received from Israel.
Mother never had a job but she was a housewife known in Radauti, so during 1914-1918 when Dad was in retreat, mother supported the family with 5 children, doing different works from wealthier people’s homes, especially at a woman who was selling bread and whom my mother helped at work, to make bread and bake bread, in an oven that can hold 10 to 12 breads of 2 kg/. piece. Mother was also doing donuts, rolls and small coils which she sold to soldiers, being helped by the big brother. She was selling these bakings to Russian soldiers, Hungarians, Austrians, who were then in turn at us. It is known that in Bucovina there were fightings for key positions and that we were either occupied by Russians or Hungarians or the Austrian army, so was until 1918-1919 when Bucovina was reunited with Romania. In these difficult conditions, our mother who was not tall and was weak, supported ourselves, the children, raising us, until my father’s coming from the refuge in 1919.
After the violent death of my father, my mother widowed at the age of 49, with 5 children to care for, 2 of which were at craft. A brother – at tailors and a sister at underwears, namely Sehmiel and Etel, the big brother, Moishe, was in the army. I, Sike, worked then in the city of Chernivtsi, where we were informed by the misfortune of the father, by the said Moritz Weber. The ohers between ages of 6-9 years and the other 2, who were already in the profession, were under the care and supervision of my mother,until the deportation of the people from Bucovina to Transnistria. Our mother also had an unhappy destiny, like our father.
On the way back to the country, coming out of camp, our mother had an accident and could not come, leaving the Graboveţi camp, where she died in 1944, in May, as a result of a fracture at the leg on the hip area. With no treatment conditions for such fractures, she was upset so, until her death. Mother, the wife of Sehmiel and the wife of Berte and the child - all four are buried in a mass grave at Graboveţi.
About my brothers and my sisters
My eldest brother, Moische entered as an apprentice for the trade of shoemaker. After 3 years of apprenticeship he became - at 16 years – a qualified journeyman. At the foreman where he made apprenticeship, he worked about 3-4 years. In the 1927 he went to work in the town of Seletin - today in the USSR. How much he endured as an apprentice in those 3 years, especially from a worker named Hirsch, he did not tell us, he was only sobbing when he was recalling it. In 1928-1929 years he worked for another two years as a foreman, at another foreman, Bercu, who was also a master. The master, who was very pleased with his work, entrusted him a small workshop in Landhaustrasse, which he led by himself, until he left to make the internship in the army in Craiova, at cavalry army and where he stayed until 1931.
When he was released from the army, he entered to a shoemaker master, Butnaru, and after falling in love with a girl of the craftsman, who he took as a wife, he opened a small shop on his own. His wife was also a craftwoman, namely a clicker. All those years, in which they lived, she helped him in his work, because she knew enough about shoemaker craft. In this marriage there were born 2 children: a girl Malvina and a boy Srul. They lived in his wife's parents' house. Their lives went in understanding. In 1940 they were also deported together with thei in- laws, with their family with 4 children. The big brother, Moishe, who emigrated to Israel with his family, died of meningitis, and his wife, of liver cancer. His children, a boy and a girl, who were yet married in Radauti, have children and grandchildren, in their turn. Brother died in 1972 and the sister-in-law in 1978, during December 17 and November 1978 or, according to the Hebrew calendar, the brother in the 12 day of the Cheşvan month and sister in 8 days of the month of Cheşvan. (1972-1905 = 67, 1978-1905 = 73).
The other 4 children, two girls and two boys have lived with mother in the same house on the Serpuita street no. 27, composed of a room and a bedroom which my mother bought after the selling of the house she inherited from the grandfather, in Norocului str., no. 20.
My older sister had the profession of underware worker, and worked this job at home. After 16-17 years, she fell in love with a boy in Radauti with whom she had intimate relationships, which mother tolerated. When the elder brother, Moische who worked in Chernivtsi, came from Seletin, I went together with him to get acquainted with the boy who the eldest sister fell in love with. The brother recognized him. He was that boy who worked at a bakery just on the street where the brother had a host and knew the vice of the boy, that of drinking brandy and other spirits. And if I and him told the same, that this boy is not for her, she replied that if we didn’t allow her to take Idalia Blum, then she will commit suicide, by plunging herself into the fountain. Just 5 meters from our house, there was a well ... Me and my big brother didn’t agree with this, otherwise there weren’t taken into account our views on this issue, therefore I did not have too many links with them, because we did not agree that she would be bound by that man, who destroyed her for life, because it was a pity for her, because she was a good girl. However, she married religiously before childbirth - yet in Radauti, but then, they lived in Chernivtsi in an apartment in the basement, in the periphery of the town, until their deportation to Transnistria.
A younger brother named Schmiel, first learned the profession of driver, but after 1-2 years, he moved to learn the craft of tailoring since the age of 14-15 years from a cousin of the mother, named Stenzler. Chascol also worked at other employers. When I opened a tailor shop I convinced him to come to work in my workshop which was our mother's house.
This brother fell in love with a girl who lived across the street from the mother's house. This girl was blonde, pretty, the single daughter to her mother - a widow. The girl's father was an administrator to a gentleman in Siret, or near the town of Siret. And one day when he went to control a bull that apparently was not bound or with a loosen chain, took him unexpectedly in horns and pushed him to the barn’s wall, killing him instantly. His wife never remarried and lived only for their daughter, and after this she married my brother and lived together in the mother's house. From this marriage there was born one male child. For them it was a happy marriage that continued until deportation, where the wife died, the child and the mother-in –law, in a very short time, ie in a single month - in 1942, in March month. On March 1, the mother-in-law, aged 53, in March 15, the child of 3 years old and his wife of 22 years (March 25, 1942). After being restored in the country she remarried in Radauti town, marriage from which there resulted two sons named Mendel and Strul. The brother worked as a tailor on his own in his home, almost until his emigration to Israel. These two sons of his, are married and have children themselves, the first has a girl of 16 years and the second - two boys between three and six years (in 1982 when I was visiting my children).
The other girl, sister Reiz (Rosa), which had 15 to 16 years, was the most beautiful of our girls and the most dilligent one. Her, especially we, the brothers loved her very much for these qualities of hers.
She learned well at school and worked with the sister at home underware, in the spare time, also helping her mother to the household.
A brother named Abram entered the tailor shop of mine that I opened in Radauti in 1934, to learn tailoring trades. He was a quiet and disciplined boy, and he quickly learned the trade.He liked to read a lot and he was reading everything. He went in the year in which Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were assigned to the USSR, in Chernivtsi city, where he worked the craft he learned from me. In the year of the war’s outbreak between Germany and the USSR, he is evacuated inland to USSR, leaving for Soviet Asia, where he was deployed in a coal mine and acquired a Soviet citizenship. After the war he returned to Chernivtsi with his wife Manea, whom he married.
And the youngest (brother) entered into a tinware specialized workshop, where he caught and learned this craft in a period of 2 years, instead of 3 years. His master, a progressive views craftsman recognized his ability and knowledge of work and paid him for the third year, while he was still an apprentice, with an apprenticeship contract, in a honorable manner. Here, at the tinware, he worked until he went to Chernivtsi, where he perfected the craft. In Chernivtsi he was proposed by the working team where he worked, at a high craft school.
This brother was deported - together with the two sisters, who were residing in Chernivtsi – Transnistria, from where he has never returned alive. He died of a tragic death ... a fact that my brother, Schmiel, often refused to relate it to me. Some acquaintances told me about his death, but they were only conjectures. He grew tall and sturdy when he was 17 years old and when he was deported to Mogilev (also Transnistria) where he died in October month 1942.
And my sisters Klara, Etel, Reiz and their spouses and Klara's child, a girl of a few years old, all died in the winter of 1942.
How many people in my family were deported and how many people in our family survived the deportations in Transnistria. From Radauti, my family was deported: Mother with the two children Reiz and Idalia. Brother, wife with the two children, Sruliu and Malvina. My wife with two children - Jett and Max. Mother in law and one sister. I was hospitalized in Targu Jiu. The brother Schmiel with his wife and a child and a mother-in-law. Those in Chernivtsi, also from my family, were: Sister Klara, with her husband and one child and the brother-in law. Sister Etel with the husband. Sister Reizala with the husband . The younger brother Idalia. With my wife there were also deported mother and her younger sister. Her mother-in-law died there of disease and malnutrition. The same happened with the Schmiel brother’s mother-in law. So, from 25 people, there remained alive only 7 people, each of them went through diseases, hunger and other deprivations.
About the civil war in Spain
In this war of Radauti, there left 3 volunteers, named Goth, Meier and Basil, all members UTC in Radauti. Two of them came back, and the third was declared missing. The first two, were intellectuals, and the third, Basil, was a gravestones carver.
The Refugee in 1939
The Polish population - those who were refugees in the war led by the Hitler's armies – also passed the borders of Bucovina, passing in the city of Radauti, in a number of several hundreds. In our city, there stopped many of these refugees, and in my workshop I received for two nights for sleeping, some of them, 10-12, who have left from here. Some of these refugees from Poland stayed a while in a camp in Targu Jiu, where, until then, in 1939, had been hospitalized Romanian political prisoners.
The Rebellion in Rădăuţi city
In those days both my wife and I lived in the most tensed manner, knowing what danger we are in, when they came from several villages near Radauti: Vicovu de Jos and Vicovu de Sus, Straja, Volovăţ, Horodnic, armed with coshes and others, we pulled the shutters and closed the workshop that we had then, in Ştefan cel Mare str., no. 25 – today, the hospital of neurology waiting for what was going to be. There were arrested 5 men, a jeweler watchmaker, the second ,Schaffer, the third, Hirsch, and in the city, one, Tonenbaum and another Herşcovici; the first had a fabric store and the second a great pub. All of them were taken to the police by legionnaires, where the first two, after a couple of hours, came home, mocked at, without cloths, and hats and the other two were beaten to death.
One of them was killed with a big cosh. They delivered their bodies, to their family, the next day. In the rebellion day, another man was molested in Ştefan cel Mare street; he was a prosecutor at a credit bank, and was called Hener.
Biographical data in my life
I was born in March 1909 year in the town of Radauti, Norocului str. 20, from an in-home mom, dad, was a hardworking laborer at a sawmill in Radauti until it was destroyed by fire. Then, he switched to a siphon store, where he filled bottles with soda, and during an explosion he was hit by a splinter of glass in one eye, and after this explosion one eye had to be removed and therefore, was left with one eye.
My father was a man of faith and religion, he registered us at cheder- the Hebrew school - of 5-6 years ( the boys, where we learned from the reading books and translations at the age of 8-9 years, from Bibles and others). At 9 years of age I was enrolled in the primary school 1918/1919 school year. Being poor from home I did not have school supplies, than a notebook made by mother and in a school book I looked at a school mate, who had something like this. The first note book was given to me by a teacher of mine, and I remember its name and I did not forget. It was of a German nationality, Gertrude Nahrgang. In the second grade my parents bought me a reading book, a really new one, but I still did not have a book of arithmetic, helping myself with those of my colleagues from school. However in the 3- 4 grades I had all the necessary books in those years from 1921 to 1922, a reading book, mathematics and natural sciences, I think, and a small book of geography. Both at cheder and at the primary school, I was a diligent pupil, having good and very ggod marks. The 4 primary classes I passed well and I got the certificate of graduation of 6 classes, taking into account the mention that I was a good pupil. My teacher in grade 4 B - Massir –proposed me to continue the school, but my parents could not afford it, because it was linked at that time with different charges.
So it was decided - and I agreed - to get as an apprentice in a women tailoring trade and this was the way I went to my first tailor master, Adolf Wining, who washolding the workshop together with brother, Ule Ranehbach, in Ştefan cel Mare str., then Kirehengasse. In this workshop, there also worked as laborers, 5-6 people. In this workshop I worked only 4 months, not being able to bear the baffles of Wining master, who was a very nervous man. In a fight with him, I left and I never went to work, I stayed home a few days, after that I employed myself with an apprenticeship contract, for a period of 3 years, to a master- Soldinger Itzik (Ringplatz), a religious and faithful man, who was also a guardian at a synagogue in Radauti, in Voitinel str., now Putnei str. This master was working with two of his daughters, of the five he had. Two girls worked also women tailoring to another owner, also in Radauti, Piata Republicii (former Rigplatz), and the wife of the master was also a lingerie tailor and had a small Singer sewing machine, with which she sewed her orders. She also had a lingerie aid (a practitioner). Both master, and his wife and daughters loved me, helping me to acquire the craft, and knowing my situation at home, gave me food many times, for lunch and evening meals.
At first, when I came to this master, he paid me 50 lei per month and gradually, gradually, he increased my the salary, up to 2 years, to 200 lei per month. But, nevertheless I left this place too, when he refused upon my request, the increase of my salary.
I entered the political activity
In 1922 year, I was attracted to the social democratic youth by a boy from our street who was also a tailor, being named Iosel Kronefield. He invited me to a gathering of excitement - as was customary then for the social democratic youth – where a worker named Hartman Antskel was speaking. Indeed, and I liked how and what he talked about and even then, I made a typified application, in order to be received as a member at the social-democratic youth of Radauti. The Social Democratic Party headquarters was then in the Putnei street, former Voitinel str., and the Social Democratic Youth was a branch of P.S.D. This head office was rented and was composed of 3 large rooms and a hallway. These rooms hold meetings, sessions and celebrations and dancing teas.
After 8 days I was received, pursuant to my application, as a member of P.S.D. youth. It was the end of 1922 year, about 14-15 years of age. I started to attend very often the youth headquarters, and I made many girl –friends and boy-friends, of those who were coming here. We discussed various issues which were of our concern and regarding those that we did not understand, we asked for clarification from the old party members, who certainly explained us our questions.
I joined the party library, from where I was recommended by a librarian, books I was reading. The librarian was an educated man, within the return of the books, he used to talk with me about the book read by me. In the first 2-3 years, I was reading literature books in Yiddish language, my native language, classical writers as: Şulem Aleichem, Mende Moicher Sfurăm, Shalom Asch, Avrum Reizen, I.L. Peritz and a book by a socialist fighter, which describes his life during his life in Tsarist, named Vladimir Medesu of Maris Rosenfel and others. Later, in the years 1926-1929, following the recommendations from the librarian and some social older democrats, such as: Hartman, Klinger Phobus, I started reading books on socialism of the first program of Ehrfurd, a book which dealt with the program of the Social Democratic Party, Robert Owen, Saint Simon, so as to stop myself from studying the books of Karl Kautsky scientific socialism, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, "the Woman and socialism" by August Bebel and Klara Zetkin, Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg.
All the books I've read in German language. I knew German language, because I did the four primary classes almost exclusively in that language. The Romanian language was taught then a few hours a week. I studied a lot these books which I indicated above, becoming more and more excited and convinced that the socialism is the future of the working class and of the peasantry. I can say that in those years 1926-1929 I became a propagandist for the socialist ideology, becoming popular within the P.S.D. youth. in 1925 year I was elected – to an organizational meeting attended by party president- dr. Drimca Mendel - in the local committee, receiving the function of cashier of the P.S.D youth. Henceforth I began taking direct part in affairs which interested the members of the youth organization in the socialist education, being quite well prepared in terms of ideology. In addition to this, I already then enjoyed some popularity in the head office in the city among youth.
I was employed as a journeyman, help, to a master, also at a tailor workshop for women, to a called Heitner Leizer of Knabeuschilgane, where I was paid with one hundred lei per week (in 1924 year). Here also worked two workers and a female worker. In particular, that female worker who has worked in Bucharest, dealt a lot with my specialization in this profession. She was called Pepi, a very good woman at heart, for that period of time I worked in that shop, under her observation. Here, also worked a brother of the master, who one day in the morning, when he came to work, scolded me and gave me a slap when I contradicted him, a thing I could not bear, and I left that place, too, after almost a year. Then I had a salary of 150 per week in 1925 in fall. Being already qualified, I've worked for a patron who paid me better than that one I left from, and from here I also left after 4 months, because in this workshop, it was not done a quality work, which I disliked. I engaged as a practitioner in a men's tailoring and military uniforms, where I worked until the end of the summer of 1927, also acquiring this profession, so that in the recent months, I would be well paid by that master, Maier Wolf Guttman, in Putnei str. (formerly Voitinelstrasse).
A qualified worker
In the autumn of 1927 year, my brother who worked at Seletin, urged me to come there too, to work at a men's tailoring, where I will earn better ( with the host). I followed his advice, and he was even right, I dressed well and I made more underwear and I could give to my parents a more aid, than before, making for my mother different cloths’ gifts: a scarf, dresses, boots shoes and other things which were very beautiful at that time.
In Seletin I worked with three boys, one in Chernivtsi and one of the Siret city. The first - Water Joseph, the second - Baran Idel, and the third, also from Chernivtsi (apparently) Goldstein? While I worked at Seletin, I had a close friendship with many craftsmen workers, who worked there, came from the cities of Chernivtsi, Radauti, Siret, to work at various crafts, such as: tailors, shoemakers, barbers and carpenters. I met some people who were known for their progressive views, as: dr. physician Klaper, lawyer Tröhlich and dr. Gaster. Later, after August 23, 1944, I find them in the town of Radauti, as members of PMR, the brothers Fuchs, Sefeovici, tailors and prime carpenters.
In 1928 year, it comes a tailor worker in Poland, also from the social democratic youth movement, named Sussman. His mother was originally from Seletin. The craftsmen workers who worked in Seletin, worked then for 12-14 hours a day and began to claim the reduction of these rules of work, at 10-12 hours, which they obtained after small different actions, made by them by refusing to work in a prolonged schedule of work in some workshops, or even by their departure in the towns they came from. In 1928 year, we succeeded in not working on the 1st. May day. We gathered in the center of Seletin, unorganized, having discussions about this day of celebration of the working class.
In 1928 year, the two of Chernivtsi, requested the salary increase, which the foreman and the son who ran the workshop refused. Then, these two workers decided to go home to Chernivtsi, and I was in solidarity with them, because then I was a member in the social democratic youth, and I also left these employers, where I can say that I had a very good situation, from any point of view, house, meals, laundry and a good salary, about 800 lei, in that year, meaning more money for the craft of a tailor.
Coming home again, I didn’t find anything to work. Better said, the owners here, did not rushed to take me to work, due to my socialist convictions that they knew.
Vicepresident P.S.D. in Rădăuţi
In 1928, after my coming from Seletin, I was elected as vice president of the social democratic youth in Radauti, and I went, in a group of 15 boys and girls to a summer colony in the town Banila on Siret, today in the U.S.S.R., for a period of 15 days. There came two boys from P.S.D. youth part, Chernivtsi, named Zimet and Rubinger, who got introduced to us, 2 boys in Radauti, one boy - Kupferschmidt Simon and me. After a few days after becoming friends with us, we have decided to systematically study the Marxist theories, something that I agreed, convincing us that this system will allow us to better understand the writings of K. Marx.
On departure from this colony, we have received instructions from the two above metnioned, in order to form such groups of three, with whom to continue these studies of Marxism in our city Radauti. We were also advised that no one must know about these groups, and nor about our studies. During the years 1928-1929, we covered almost 70-80% of young men and women in these formations of groups of the P.S.D. youth in Radauti.
Not finding any work, I went looking for work outside the borders of Radauti.
I worked 2-3 months in Siret, 4-5 months in the city of Vatra Dornei-Bai, after which I returned home at the end of 1928 year, where I stayed in Radauti city and I started working tailoring at home, on my own, receiving many orders from different people and friends of my childhood. I bought for myself a sewing machine, on occasion, for the sum of 3,000 lei. I worked like that at home to mother, but starting from the autumn of 1928 year until the autumn of 1929 year, I worked for an employer who welcomed me to work at him – unless I won’t make any agitation among the workers in the workshop. But still, within a labor dispute, in this workshop, where I was accused as an instigator, the owner gave me a notice of 14 days, which I did not make and I left this workshop, too.
In 1929 year, 2 from Radauti were called, the undersigned and Kupferschmidt, in order to meet a fellow of Chernivtsi. - the invitation was made by the comrade- Haber-Invanier – Schor, who was an engineer and had a PhD title in philosophy. This was the man who led in Chernivtsi these circles of Marxist studies, as well as, his sister, who was a teacher at the University of Chernivtsi. I stayed for a course for these studies for 2 weeks, coming home and continuing my work, according to the instructions given by this engineer. This engineer with his sister were born in the city of Sadagura, near Chernivtsi, today, the U.S.S.R.
After those two weeks in Chernivtsi, they have given me instructions to rent a secret house, a place where came young fellows from Chernivtsi section, for us to continue our Marxsist-Leninist preparations, one named Rubingen, which was an intellectual and the second - a carpenter worker. The first worked in broadcasting, in the show for the inhabiting minorities.
In the winter of 1929-1930, I left from Radauti to Chernivtsi, to look for work, a thing I have found and I worked in the beginning, at a men tailoring as trousers’ specialists, for a month, after that, getting a job at a patron of ladies’ tailoring, where I worked until my recall by our groups – in Radauti, in the summer of 1929. Two of these comrades came to me for this purpose, ie for a better organzation of these UTC groups in the city and in two or three villages, plus Seletin. It was in 1929 when it came to the issue of developing the political work during this time.
Following a training of mine, I gave a lecture in front of the Social Democratic Youth, in the city of Siret, in the summer of 1929, with a participation of 70-80 young people.
In this room, within an occasion of a manifestation, there also came a few legionnaires, and cuzists, who provoked a fight, that led to two seriously injured persons and five slightly wounded, a manifestation which was a cultural one, and which was never held. The wounded persons were our boys from self-defense, Hendel, Furnier, Ţugui, Braier, Plosceac, Sandu et al. The first two were the most seriously injured.
Another fight took place on the occasion of anti-war day - August 1 – at the P.S.D. headquarters in Caragiale str., then Krubelgasse, between us, the communists and the social-democrats. After the speech of a young man of P.S.D., some of us have requested to speak, while they were always interrupted, an action which led to that fight, which resulted in injuried people, on both sides. Then, a supporter of ours, named Velnicer Gr., a very robust, defended very efficiently, hitting to the right and to the left those people who made this challenge.
Indeed, in November month, 1929, I had a search at my home (at the mother) in the presence of the security chief, dr. Cudla and the commissioner Mironescu. Within their departure, they told me to take care to find a work, because they found me working at home.
U.T.C. Secretary in Rădăuţi
Also in the autumn of the same year, 1929, I am appointed secretary of the Communist Youth Union of Radauti city, the whole committee that was before us, being changed. This change was made by the regional delegate, a fellow Terleţki (or Susureac), the last worked at the newspaper Vornvarte, a German newspaper, an organ of the Democratic Social Party.
The Committee was composed of the following members: Stenţler, Soischer, Kupferschmidt Georgescu and Dascăl. After my appointment as secretary, I received the archive from those in the former committee, in a well guarded place. Every time there came a delegate from Chernivtsi regional, he was bringing a conspirative material, which I was processing in committee and in cells. Of those who came as delegates from Chernivtsi, were: Haber-Invanier, Susureac, Terleţki. Terleţki held a secret meeting in the Tirului str., where 30-35 people took part, Haber-Invanier held another meeting in meadow, near Hebrew cemetery, where 80-90 people took part. At these meetings we talked about the international political situation. Every time a delegate came, he brought conspirative materials, circulars of the Central Committee and of the Regional, which were hidden in a secret place in the ground, known only to me.
And we, the local committee, decided to write a newspaper by hand, with capital letters, which we entitled "Der Rote Stern", "The red star". This paper I wrote in German language, in 25-30 copies with 3 children. This newspaper was broadcast in the brewery factory, the factory of houses and screeds, the factory of batteries and electrics. I was also encrypting several workshops in the city. This newspaper had two occurrences, until our arrest, of the committee. The paper was written at my house. All the archive which was in a secret place, was handed over by my mother - after a speaker which I had with my mother - Wimisch Lev comrade, with the indications about how and where was this secret place. It must be noted that when the Security made a thorough search at home, 4 policemen searched and did not find any compromising material nor found the secret archive. This was after a few days after my arrest. So, what the Security wanted to find out, ie, who is a secretary and where is the clandestine -subversive material, they did not found out and did not found. The newspaper was written by Matias Maicr-Kupferschmitd, Dascăl Nandi and Soicher Osias.
During the 1929-1930 years, we, those organized in these bands, started to act against some political actions of the social democrats leaders in Radauti. At the deputies’ election in the Parliament or at the election of councilors at City Hall. For example, when they wanted to become a corporate trust with the nationalist- peasants, in order to be secured with mandates and parliament or with counsellor mandates at the City Hall. The P.S.D. leaders have sought our activity and began to suspect us for the oppositionist activity within the social democratic movement of the party. Also in 1929 year, there was decided from the leadership of the Social Democratic Youth of Chernivtsi, a meeting of the delegations from all over Bucovina, where there are youth organizations, to meet at a gathering in the town of Siret. From behalf of the organization in Radauti, 4 boys left, Kupferschmidt, Dascăl, Erdman and I, with my name then of Soicher. A few days before that meeting, there came to us a delegate from Chernivtsi in Radauti, giving us instructions on what proposals to make at these meetings of the youth in Siret. From Chernivtsi came a delegation of 15 young people of the Social Democratic Youth, led by a young man of 20-21 years named Singer. There were also those who were with us in Banila and another companion, Haber-Invanier. The point in the agenda at this meeting was: The role of the social democratic youth among youth workers. In the discussions that lasted 4-5 hours, there have been made various proposals, for improving the work of agitation and propaganda and a proposal by the delegation of Chernivtsi, made by the aforesaid Singer and by the delegation in Radauti, who supported the proposal of the Chernivtsi people. Our proposal was voted, almost by the majority of those present. I want to mention that this meeting, was attended by a majority of young members with subscription cards, who were entitled to vote at this meeting.
This meeting was held in a room that was called then, the beer hall, beil today. This room had a capacity of over one hundred people and was occupied until it stops. After the debates and after the decisions’ making regarding the agenda at this meeting, of which our proposal was: that the Social Democratic Youth, which was a branch of the PSD, to be free and independent in its leadership. This thing depended, however, on the higher party leadership for the Bukovina in Chernivtsi city. The delegates all went home, convinced they were able to decide something good in the favor of the Social Democratic Youth. But the higher leadership in Chernivtsi, headed by dr. Pistiner, Kissman, Roznovan and others in leadership, annulled this decision of ours, which they called a judgment against the Social Democratic Party’s program. They also took organizational measures, to soothe our momentum, "which is good as Pistiner said" who he came to soothe it, except this, he also sent a member, a good social- democrat in Chernivtsi, in order continue our calming. After 23 August, when it was decided by the two central committees, the union of the Cominist Party and of the Social Democratic Party- this social democrat whose name was Dancknes Isack - refused to leave as a delegate for voting.
Also following other actions of lesser importance, I have been excluded from the P.S.D. youth in Radauti, whose headquarters was now in Caragiale str., by the P.S.D. committee, with two delegates from the leadership of Chernivtsi, lawyer Friedmand and Kissman, also a lawyer. This exclusion of ours of 10 boys of the youth in Radauti was made in the autumn of 1930 year.
This exclusion was determined before being taken on a Saturday at a special meeting, at which came two delegates. The proof that when we were in the Friday preceding that Saturday in the head office, came that good social democrat and asked us to leave the premises and at our refusal, there occured a serious fight between us, the young people and the other members of the leadership, headed by Soicher Osias and Dankner Isack and a broken coat of Soicher. All young people who have been present that night in the head office, got solidarized with us, and demonstratively left with, the targeted ones. Three days later, it appeared a typed poster on the inner door of the headquarters: Our reason for exclusion, in which we are considered being against the Social Democrat Party program. It was natural that the Security found out about this exclusion of ours. On that poster, we, the 10 ones, have been listed, with the last and first names.
Being excluded and not finding someone else more active in my place, just after a few weeks, also in the autumn of 1930, the comrade Haber-Invanier, brought for the first time, materials, brochures, newspapers and instructions with which I was instructed to take to Seletin, at that Susman, which I knew. I put all these materials in a backpack and I left on a train by night, handing over those materials and the verbal instructions and in the same night, I went back to Radauti, lest, I won’t be seen there, although I disguised myself, in order not to be recognized by those who know me in Seletin.
Also in the autumn of 1930, November month, the comrade Haber-Invanier, brings me home leaflets which had to be scattered and glued in the city. This action was completed successfully, no one of the members who went at night in the field, was surprised by the police bodies, due to the good organization of this action, a quite difficult one.
In the 1931 year, (2-3 May) the comrade Haber Invanier came again - who brought this time 1200 leaflets, which had to be glued in the periphery of the city and on the roads (avenues), on poles near the villages. Although this action was prepared with every detail and in accordance with precise guidelines, two of the boys who had to accomplish a part of this action, each of them made a fundamental mistake, and this action was discovered. One of the boys, named Hertig Levi, glued a leaflet on a pole, next to the street where he lived, not at the periphery, and earlier than he was instructed to do this. Instead of 22 hours, he glued the leaflet at 20 hours, and the second group – because there were each two boys who had the task to glue these leaflets in Cărămidăriei str., also at 22 hours.
They did this thing at 20.30 hours and the second mistake of theirs was that while glueing the leaflet - with thumbtacks – from a yard, a dog started barking, because on the fence of that yeard, they wanted to put the poster. One of them ran and the second set however that leaflet. At the barking of the dog, there came outside the father and the son from that house and caught the boy who was a little lame. He didn’t even succed to escape (or he did not want). The first was named Braier Mordea and the second Georgescu Ştefan. The others who had this mission, were not discovered. They fulfilled their mission as directed.
Searches at the Police in Rădăuţi
The said Georgescu was taken to the police by those who caught him and the said Braier understood to notify the former secretary - who was secretary before me - about the story of Georgescu. Then he went home and slept without any care, eventually, around 3-4 at night he was also arrested, a brother of mine named Schmiel who resembled Sike, was also arrested around 4-5 o’ clock and I at 6.
The first two after being beated by the police, said who gave them the leaflets, which they stuck. My brother was immediately released, after an hour or two, being identified that he is Smil and not Şike and so, they arrested me on the morning of January 5, 1931, the day of red Jordan, as those from Radauti Security called it, because the peripheries of the city and several roads which were heading to villages like: Marginea, Fratauti and Horodnic were also displayed with stuck leaflets, then, from the five groups which had that mission.
Within our arrest, there was also arrested the former secretary of the local committee Brunstein Sulim, who was also known to the Radauti Security, from the fact that by several political actions, elections at the city hall of the councilors and in one of the election of social democrats deputiees, have wanted to be included with the National Peasants’ Party. He opposed by making opposition and processing these problems with many people and as a result, they were forced to abandon this inclusion and candidateed alone on the lists, but they didn’t meet the necessary votes, eiher at the one of it, or at the second one. The random was when he was brought to the Security and the master who brought him, gave him a slap, he cried and said, don’t beat me, because I shall tell you everything. And I believe he said, because after him, they did more arrests as: Bauhen, Becher, Hendel Cibi and Uvan Henkel Ploşceac Nicu.
I was also questioned by a commissioner and I heard these words. He was sentenced to 6 months and after having served this punishment, he went to Bucharest, where he stayed all the time for the rest of his life.
In our trial, when the prosecutor read the indictment, he made some characterizations against the defendants, alleging some, who were even sentenced, including Georgescu Ştefan, who was was caught with leaflets. He said that he is not guilty, but Sricher recte Stenţler is, the person who attracted him in this communist propaganda. He was a good boy, his father gave him education, who was a major sergeant (or who was and was retired). With such comrades our organization was once entirely exposed. But we also committed other mistakes, which almost cost us our freedom.
From these leaflets, we sent two of them, one to the head of the security and one to the Secretary of the Security, named Clipa Arcadie.
A wrong decision for sure, although addresses were written with the left hand of one of us, from the local committee of the Romanian Communist Party. Within the research against our address, they put some of us, those arrested, to write some phrases and names. In addition, these leaflets were glued and scattered into the people's yards, we showed thereby that we exist in Radauti, a fact they knew years ago, too, by the arrest of some communists and the second arrest of many young people from Rapid sports club.
The Security knew we existed, but it was very mad because they failed to discover our organization and there were also scattered leaflets, on the occasion of the anti war day, in August month, and they arrested the people they knew and who were compromised. Eventually we all fell.
How did they do the arrests? There have been 34 arrests of which 19 remained detained for judgment. Our judgment was made in March 18, 1931, by the Court of Radauti, based on Marzescu law, a law against illegal communist movement.
How did the investigations take place within the police?
Most of those arrested were beaten, some less and others more. The most severe were beaten and tortured for hours and days, those who did not reveal our action, being beaten on the hands, legs, on the naked body, with a valve of ox, and they were beaten to unconsciousness. Those whom the Security had registered, especially those who did not want to say what the Security-Police demanded from them, or, in particular, those who did not confirm, after the confrontations that they would not recognize. This situation lasted until Friday, when it was a market day in Radauti, and those from the outside, managed to mobilize the fellows and parents, some 200 peasants and workers in the city, who demonstrated in front of the building, where the Security was, with shouts: do not beat, do not kill the detainees. And indeed, the urge of the beatings lessened, but not at all, and not for all. By the written parental intervention, there came a Security inspector from Bucharest, to see if what has been written to him is true. We, who have been tortured, as mentioned above, when the inspector called me to see, we were ready and we showed him, for as much as we could, our bodies, hands and our faces, as well as the two girls who were arrested together with us. Indeed, the beatings stopped and the investigations were stopped and 19 of those arrested were handed over to the court and the rest were set free. Of those arrested, most were workers, tailors, strokes, shoemakers, barbers and two were sellers.
We were deferred to judgment, after eight days from our arrest and our confirmation for the instructors of our judging, was done by the prosecutor Grecu, from the Court of Radauti.
At the instruction judge of the court, of German origin, named Paul, we, the four who have been the most tortured by the security police, did not want to admit the statements that they extorted from us by beating. Then, I showed him my body, too, to which he told me that it is nothing, that we deserved to be hanged. At these sayings of his, I refused any statement, the exact thing that the other 3 boys did. But he did not forgive this attitude of ours toward him, as instruction judge, and sent us to new researches to the Inspectorate of Police Security at Chernivtsi, were we stayed for the new researches, for ten days, in the custody of the inspectorate, after which, we were brought back to the prison in Radauti, on the 24th of January.
In the police custody in Radauti, we stayed separately into 5 cells, each 2-3-4 boys and girls, yet, we were able to prepare for the process that would be on March 18. This time there came instructions from the Central Committee, that our process should be a political process of accusation of the capitalist system regime – not like the two processes, which were in 1928 year, about the Rapid sports club in Radauti, when the accused ones, took a defensive position, especially at the first trial. At the second trial, of the two arrested, they gave two convictions, too. Indeed, we have prepared thoroughly for this process, establishing what each of us will speak in the debate of the process and from the main problems, it was the communist movement, the role of the unions and the role of the communist youth.
The Trial in Rădăuţi Law Court
To this process, it was sent for our defense, the lawyer Zisu (Petru) and our parents took the known advocate Teleagă in Radauti. The trial opened - started on 9 am, accusing me, and saying that my friends have accused me, that I would have stolen the books from the PSD library. I told everybody at the trial: you might find these books to those who sent you to me. The truth was that these books of ideology of left, were bought by me in Chernivtsi, in 1929 year, from Velei library. I have not stolen them from the library, but I hid them well, in order not to be discovered by the police and the trial lasted until 9 pm, without an accurate result. The parents, workers and a group of peasants, who came to assist at the trial, were not allowed in the room, by the police which was posted at the doors of the court.
At the trial there came a few newspaper reporters: Morning, Universe, Vornvortz Current. For the courtroom to be with assistance, a group of 35-40 Cuzist was released, led by their leader, Robu, in Radauti, almost all of them, having sticks in their hands, to intimidate us. During the debate of the process, we who had the parole to reply to the questions of the chairman, were always interrupted by him or by the others in the chair. Incidentally, however, after many entreaties during the debate, they let some of our relatives to attend the trial. They called as accusation witnesses, the head of the police and the two who caught Georgescu at their fence, when he put or wanted to stick a leaflet. In this process there were given the following correctional prison sentences: 2 every 3 years, 6 one year, 6 by 6 months, 5 exonerations. The performance and the convictions occurred then in the newspapers, those which sent reporters to the process, too.
The advocacy of our lawyer Petre Zisu, was developed in the spirit of the ideas and concept of freedom of speech and the revolutionary workers' movement was always interrupted by the presence of Cuzist group. And Teleagă spoke in our defense, asking, among other, the permission of the judicial panel.
Our persons from the outside, took all the measures of defense, in order to avoid being beaten by Cuzists. Together with 2 guards and 4 companions from self-defense, he was introduced through the back door of the tribunal, directly to the prison building, from where he was taken to the Dorneşti railway station – at night and then he went from there to Bucharest. He said goodbye to all those who were judged, and us, the 3, who managed to speak what we have established, he congratulated.
In the prison of Rădăuţi police
The next day after the trial, we were all taken to a larger prison cell. There we were allowed to receive books and newspapers by our families, occasion on which, we introduced books, which were forbidden at that time, books by Lenin, Gorky, Siebknech and others. There were not many of them, but they were in our cell (no. 6).
One day, due to the non-attention of a boy, there has been discovered a reading book, the guard announced by the first guard, who made a cell search, confiscating all our books. We protested but they did not want to give us the books, which were admitted into the cell, refusal to which we declared a hunger strike, that lasted 6 days and a half, until they gave us the socialist books and other literature, that was free. While we stayed in the prison in Radauti, they brought a group of comrades, arrested in Seletin, including factory workers and artisans and Ukrainian peasants (Ruthenian) - about 6-8 people. If they had a trial and they were convicted,t I do not know. And in March-April, there have been new arrests among young communist sympathizers M.O.P.R. (Red Help) including three students: Riczker A. Gander G. And Peric. After 4 or 5 days after being investigated by the police, they were deferred to the trial court, for the confirmation of the arrest warrants and surrendered to prison. During the search, one of the boys, said that I spoke at a meeting which took place near Hebrew Cemetery, and after this declaration, I was taken by a commissioner of the cell, to confirm the statements of that boy. I did not recognize the statements of the boy, even after confronting him by police. Neither the instruction judge called me to confirm the words of that boy.
The instruction for that process was made in April 18 to 20, but I with comrade Haber-Invanier, have been sent to prison in Mărgineni, Prahova County on the day of May 5, 1931, where we stayed until June 27, 1931.In the prison of Mărginen, there were almost eight hundred prisoners, between 3 and30 years and for life. Convictions for theft, robbery, murder, burglary, rape, forgery of documents and others. The two of us, with political convictions of agitation and spreading of propaganda manifestos, were asked by the court president where we want to go? Either Suceava or Margineni, to that question we answered: Mărgineni. When we got there, a boy who was executing a sentence of 5 years, told us that here is very well, but we have to work in workshops, me at tailoring and Invanies at the woodwork. But we were determined to say that there had been a mistake with our sending to Mărgineni, because we should have been sent to Doftana. - First of all, you get undressed and you get dressed with these cloths of the prison, after we see what we will do with you "you, Bolsheviks". We refused to dress, and after a short fight that this first-guard gave us for the first time, first, Invanier got dressed and I got dressed after that. On those grounds that our sending, would be an error, the Mărgineni prison warden, sent a letter-note to the court in Radauti, that we have chosen instead of the prison of Mărgineni, Suceava prison. And as a result, we were nicely sent with the van wagon to the prison in Suceava. The 6 boys who had a sentence of one year, were already found by us here, where the 6 of them, all stayed in a cell.
As a result of this intervention, we have been transferred on the date of 29, from Mărgineni prison to Suceava prison, where we arrived in the evening. They have made us a thorough body search, saying that he would have to obey the prison rules, that "here's Suceava" and two guards and a key-man took us to the cell, key-man meaning the guard who was opening or closing the cells of the prison. His name was Liky, of German origin, more sturdy and ruddy. Closing our cell, he warned us that if there comes, the senior warden, the clerk or the manager, we should stand up and salute with; "long live", standing. Since then we were getting up, but not for the key-man, even never, while we were in prison of Suceava. After a few days, at our request, we were given permission to stay together with the other 6 boys in Radauti and in the same evening when they were closing the cell - which was closed all day - but so is the regulation, I reported, with all standing, that we are 8 detainees in room no. 24. All guards, 8 in number, coming headed by Prime- guard, were surprised that we welcomed, but not with "long live" but with "good evening". Until our coming to the cell, our boys, all were subject to the rules required by the first guard. The director called us and asked us to work – I in tailoring, because next to the guard building, there was a room with a sewing machine and down, in the basement - a room for joinery and carpentry. We made a meeting in the room (cell), which was led by comrade Haber and he also said that he is not on the line of the prisons, so that, we, the political, would work. I fought this line, on the true motives of the prison in Suceava, that the regime we are submitted to, is not an isolation one in cells, and the strict regime regarding the: speaker, packages, books to read, cells with painted windows, the walk of 5- 10 minutes in a circle, and 2 m in distance from human to human and ultimately if we work, we will succeed easier to bear that regime, but my proposal was not accepted. It is true that in the group of 6, there was also a tailor, but he was going to stay - and the other - only until August 18, because they received the pardon decree, reducing their punishment from 1 year to 6 months. While we had to stay in prison 21 months in Suceava, because when we came to the prison in Suceava, the first guard said with joy: "Now we make a tailor shop and anothr of carpentry". But the collective decision was holy, I stood against. A week later, there came back that inspector who agreed for us to be taken together with the 6 in our trial, but the next day we were separated from them and the two of us were taken together in a small cell. Here I sought to convert Haber to my opinion to do tailoring and carpentry, but in vain, moreover, he accused me of opportunism. To this indictment of Haber, I gave up the food aid which I received outside. Meanwhile, have made a contact with a guard, named Moli, better said, from those who are outside, they made us teruş - one of the worst guards in Suceava, who carried and brought our correspondence. Due to our refusal to work, immediately after our arrival in Scueava, for disobedience, they have reduced our food ration of the boiler at a half. We, collectively, were opposing to the prison leaders, through individual measures. During these months, we have taken small isolated actions, but without tangible results.
Taking the defense of a fellow, who was taken to cazincă - a dark cell, all in the dark - by screams and blows, knocking into the cell door, I was chained at my feet with the right hand and dragged also to cazincă, one or two days me, and one or two days, Haber. Another time, also for disobedience, we have been separated into two cells and chained again, like the first time, but this time we were kept 14 days, punished in this way, and seeing that we do not repent, they have opened our chains and took us together in a cell, which meant for us a small victory of political regime.
In early 1932, April-May, there comes a group of 54 comrades led by their Secretary, Dr. Ghetoff. They were from D.R.O. organization. All the communists who have been in the prison, 54 + 8 + 2 = 64, have been imprisoned in the 1st floor and the 2 nd floor, in the cells and rooms, including one cell of common right, in order to prevent the communication between us . Once, we solidarized with a fellow- newcomer, one named Bunaş and we used the excuse to try a more extensive action. Then, in September - our numbers increased by 8 comrades from Chisinau, including fighters from Tatar-Bunar and a fellow named Bouros, who was sentenced to 3 years. From the group in Chisinau, there was also the comrade Şniţer Abrasa, after August 23, a member of the C.C. of the party. There were more politically sentenced prisoners, so that our action, may have succeeded.
The comrade Ghetoff, Haber and Seicher were detained in cell no.12. Us, the 3 were de action committee to organize a hunger strike action, because those few isolated actions of obstruction, did not change that rough regime, almost at all. Despite all measures taken by guards, we still have established a "chain" link with the those who were down and with those who were up, and we set after about 2 months, the points which we were claiming for a political regime in this prison.
The points of claim that we've asked, for all communists in prison:
1 The windows should to opened and one door in the morning and one in the afternoon.
2 Access to the library and an official newspaper for reading.
3 The walk in the yard and outdoors, an hour per day.
4 Monthly - two parcels of food from our families.
5The correspondence should be twice, monthly for being written and received.
6 To say much more persons in rooms and not in small cells.
7 Once a month we will speak to our relatives.
After this organization, a few days later, we agreed with the day of declaring a strike. The night there came the first guard with the usual retinue of guards to make the closing, he was informed of our claims, he was astonished, but he said he would report it to the director. According to what has been established, all the communists of the cells, both on the first floor and the second floor, formulated our claims, within the coming of the first-guard that night. The next day, there came the warden of the prison, with the President of the Court, asking us the reasons of the hunger strike, to which we gave the reasons that have led us to this. The next day we were already on strike - the director came, proposing a covenant, which consisted of the following:
1 An open window every ½ hour, instead of 10 minutes.
2 Access to the library, but not to the newspaper.
3 Walking ½ an hour.
4. Monthly, a single food package.
5 Correspondence once a month.
6 Staying in cells further on.
7 Once a month to have the speaker.
But they asked us to open a tailoring and a carpentry. But comrade Haber said that if we are not totally approve the 7 points, we continue the strike - without trying to advise with us,Soicher and Ghetoff with whom we 3 stayed together in the same cell no. 12. He didn’t even want to hear about work. I still said my opinion that the offer of the director would be an earning for us, in this prison. But comrade Ghetoff was of Haber's opinion and our fight - the strike continued. About the fourth day, the comrades from the bottom floor have stopped hunger strike, demanding food and going out for a walk the next day, too, and I who was isolated on II-nd. second floor I stopped the hunger strike, too - seeing that most of the boys have stopped this strike – this strike was interrupted- after nine nights and eight days, and the comrade Haber-Invanier after 9 days and 10 nights. Only the group in Chisinau, numbering 6 or 7 comrades kept it for 12 days, and when we slipped them a note about the strike’s situation, they stopped the strike in the same day, demanding food. A comrade named Vasile Vasilencu who was in touch with us to organize this action, also asked for food and so, our strike failed. This strike took place about September 1932. After two months, there came the invitation for me to be reinstated in the team. After the strike, Haber also accepted for us to open the two workshops, and possibly with other trades, if they are craftsmen. I want to mention that within our arrival, they have proposed us this work with certain percentages for us. In this problem I had to be a delegate, but I refused to go for this problem. But some of our claims, were given by our director. The things proposed by him, with whom all that have been then in that prison, declared ourselves satisfied with.
In November month, Bulgarian comrades, most of them have been released, there remained several other trials, every with 2-5 years conviction and the Bessarabian group, every with 2-3 years of conviction. The 2 of us, were released on 9 IV 1932.
With 8 days before, each of us were sent to prison of the city, where we were residing. In that van which took us, I, personally had enough trouble for my disobedience. At the entrance I welcomed with "good evening", a thing which was displeased by the head of the van. In the railways station of Dornesti, the guardian who would escort me to Radauti, did not show up. Therefore, being taken to Chernivtsi, to the local jail of Osteplatz, the next day in the evening, we were taken out of prison and many of us were rounded up, in order to go to the railways station, where I had to be taken to Dorneşti. In Chernivtsi at prison, that chief wanted to give me some chains to bring it to the station, a thing which I refused. In the railways station at the van wagon, which was on a secondary line, that chief did not let me to go up on the wagon, keeping me up to the last who got up. I was received by that chief – he was wearing a black beard - and two guards with a fight with the fists and a whip by that chief. I did not know how much those shots last, but when I woke up, I was in the arms of another prisoner, after the help he gave me. Then, I had blood which gushed from my mouth and from the left ear, do to which, even now I sometimes have troubles with the eardrum.
In 1933 year, on the April 9, I was then released from prison in Suceava, after which I executed from my sentence of 3 years – which by the decree of amnesty and pardon the communist prisoners benefited by, I also benefited by the third part of what I had to execute, meaning 33 months to 22 months, so I was released on April 9. Coming home I started working tailoring, in my mother's house. I had enough customers and enough work, I earned well, but still I was engaged to an employer, who called me to him, but I did not work more than 5-6 weeks, him unwanting to pay me how much I asked for, I left him and I rented a place on Ştefan cel Mare str., together with my brother, who was a shoemaker, sharing this place, up on a podium, and I, down, with the tailoring.
At home in Rădăuţi, the marriage
In that year, in autumn 1933, upon my brother's proposal, I am introduced to a cousin of his wife, in the town of Burdujeni, who I got engaged with after 4 months, we took the religious ceremony - which was the desire of the girl’s mother and of her relatives. I submitted myself to this desire, for the sake of the girl that I endeared very much, and who I loved, until her death in 1965 year, December month 22. In 1934 year, we got married in October month in the day of 22 X 1934, my beloved wife, gives birth to a girl, making us a great joy. After a month I rented also in the same building, another bigger space and the house where we moved and where we stayed until my admission into the camp for political prisoners in Miercurea-Ciuc. In my studio I had to work to earn enough for life, especially since I hired two workers. Being disappointed by the comrades, especially those in the trial, and especially by Haber, who had rather in all the decisive word, to be honest, I did not try to resume the contact on the organization line, with those who I knew that are part of the management, but nor them - I realized after about 5-6 months- did not seek to contact me. Realizing how it the situation which was continuing, I followed my way, taking care of my family, who in 1935 year with another child who was born, but who died of huger after the deportation to the Bershad camp. Through my work of tailoring I earned very well, making me a material situation. I ordered beautiful kitchen furniture in 1935 year and over two years I bought bedroom and living-room furniture. In 1936 year I already had a radio set to which there came my acquaintances and my wife’s friends, who came to listen to music and news, opportunity on which we discussed the political situation. In particular, we were listening to Moscow radio, of course with the closed door. On Saturdays, there came to me a friend or two friends, with whom I also discussed political issues. One of them was a prominent P.S.D. member, but also a great supporter of P.C.R.. With him, I discussed more, rather than with the others. he was an upholsterer by trade and lived down the street from me. During 1935-1940 years, our circle of friends widened to 50-60 people, who came to our house. And occasionally, we invited 20 -30 of them at an evening meal, which was usually prepared by 3-4 of our wives, and on that occasions, we were listening to the radio news and comments in Moscow. In the last 3 years, before my hospitalization, I had a big radio set, "Minerva" brand, with 4 waves, to which on could hear very well. Although I was sitting at my house and I was minding my own work at the workshop, I want to show that Safety did not forget me, but it took care of me, during all these years, also visiting me to the royal maneuvers, that took place in the summer of 1935-1936 year. Two commissioners (Baumgarten and Slusariuc) worked in the space of my workshop, with the exchange that vis-a-vis of the workshop, there were high officers who ran these maneuvers (the major state was in the elementary school, today no. 4).
During a search of the year 1937 to 1938 in the evening at 21-22 hours, the head of security, Cudla with another commissioner Mironescu, arrested a worker named Wurnebrand Lara, who worked occasionally to me. That same evening during the search, he also got to the small case with money, in which there was a nice sum for a craftsman like me, and on this occasion, I told him: - See, Mr boss, that I mind my work, and yet you do not give me peace, why? He said - We know why! And another time he came in broad daylight, when I was doing samples for a work to a customer, and I dared make him the observation that why do you scare my clients and why do you come to the workshop looking for me? Since I have a house in the same building, at first, he goes around my house in order to enter the workshop and he knows my whole house ... The fact was, I was well arranged. And I was telling this to him when he reproched me that I am well arranged, like a bourgeois and he was always visiting me, but he replied me that the wolf changes its hair but not the bad habit .. .This propaganda work on my own I understood to do, until 1939, when the companions resumed again the touch with me, giving me a job on the line of red aid, the work I did until my admission to Miercurea-Ciuc. In those days there came to Raduti the king (Carol). Also, in those years, on the occasion of the holidays of May 1, or the Day of the October Revolution, I had the honor to be invited by the police to sit with them, in the guard wing, or in another room, with the others who were their guests. In 1939 year, when there were ceded the Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in June month and according to the agreement, the agreement between the U.S.S.R. and Romania, the new frontier remained opened for Romanian citizens, whos were born in the other territories - and the repatriation commission worked at the Burdujeni railway station, today Suceava South - on the basis of the birth certificates, those who demanded, were repatriated. At first, for a few days, the citizens in Radauti, in a pretty large number, left from here by the police authorities. My mother, sisters and brothers, all of them left then. Interestingly, the police chief asked about my little brother, who was following after me – Smil: Your brother Osias, does not leave? - to which he replied that he does not leave and the police chief said that it is not good for him not to leave. Brother came and told me the things which the chief of the police said. Also, in those days, a larger group of compromised communists and Communist Youth Union, were ready to go in Chernivtsi, and one that I suspected he is the secretary of the Communist Youth Union Radauti, came to me to ask me if I do not leave myself in Chernivtsi, too, a question to which I replied not, saying that I believe that it is not a communist party line to go in this situation. After 2-3 days after Bessarabia and Chernivtsi have beed ceded, at night, the police came to search my house, which may have adverse consequences for me, because that night, they took a girl who was in front, and who working for us, but my luck was that girl has agreed not to say anything about what she saw in our house. And after another 2-3 days, there came a third search at night, through the garden.
The house was with a gate (slab) closed and during this search, I saw that I could not stay in Radauti any longer. About a third search, I will also write to the completion of these memories. Following these three searches, me and my wife, decided yet to go in Chernivtsi, because the crossing point by Bahrinesti was free.
We were determined to leave everything in the house, except the pillows and linen, from which we did a bale in a carpet and remained for us to leave in the morning, but that night around 8-9 hours (20-21) there appeared a truck and a policeman arrested me. I said my name in vain- Stenţler Osias- and not Soicher Sike – because you are the same –they replied- and in the same night I was taken to the police, where I also found 3 companions: Dascăl Nandy, Plosceac Nicu and Prisca Ioan. The next day we were surrendered to the Guards’ Legion, where after two days, we were sent, bound at hands, every two of us, in the day of 6-7 at Miercurea-Ciuc, where we were handed over to the colonel of the camp. In the two days we were kept to the police, I was surprised that I was not beaten, and at the first opportunity, I asked the head of security where is he leading us, a question to which he did not want to say anything. I asked the same question to the colonel of the legion, who told us that where we were going, it will be fine and tied us in pairs and took us to a lieutenant and two gendarmes, by train, to the camp, where we got in the day of July 10 - 11, 1940.
The camp in Miercurea-Ciuc
Here, on the political line, we, the four, were received by the comrade Comnacu Nicolae, originating from Tarnava. Among the most prominent companions, I remember M.Gh.Bujor, prof. Crucianu, Gh. Apostol, B. Berea, Caracal (prof. Cristea) Petrosani. We stayed in our group in Radauti, whose responsible I was assigned, we were always together. Here, we had a political regime, it can be said, recognized, internally, we administered ourselves.
I had a Spanish worker for a period of time, and the food was pretty good. We were organizing our political work, in order to hold small meetings and secret meetings. In this camp I stayed until the assignment of Ardeal, in September 6, 1940, when we were transferred to the camp of political prisoners in Caracal. On the transfer from the camp at Miercurea Ciuc, there was released a number of 25-30 companions, including two in our group, and namely Plosceac Nicu and Prisca Ioan.
The camp in Caracal
Here in Caracal, we were reorganized, but also in groups of 3-5 comrades, forming teams. Our group of 5, had a companion named Marin. Here also continued the work of communist education. I took part in secret meetings that were held here by prof. Cristea, as those held in Miercurea-Ciuc by Gheorghe Apostol. But we were made some baffles by the colonel of the camp, who, even within our arrival, before entering the camp, held a talk for us, with the threat that if we are not disciplined under the regulation of the camp, then, the gun will talk, indicating to it by his finger. He was gathering us in the yard, where he was putting us in a square, demanding us to count from right to left, or he was mandatorily putting us, young and old, to do serious gym.
The foodin the boiler became increasingly weaker and after the intervention of those who were outside, this colonel was replaced by another, who treated us humanely, changing the regime of his predecessor, making us a number of improvements. The staff’s number of Caracal camp doubled with our arrival in M. Ciuc to 580-600 political prisoners. In the camp there were people who were only communists’ sympathizers, who the police and gendarmerie arrested and sent to those two camps. In mid-October month 1940, there came a screening committee, headed by a colonel and verified all prisoners in this camp, and after 2-3 weeks, to be set free about 150 people, but with the condition to sign a statement, in which they undertook to make no communist propaganda and they will be present from eight in eight days, to the police or gendarme post, getting a train permit ticket, up to the residence, town, where they should be immediately present to the police or gendarmerie. Although I did not expect it, knowing that I was sentenced to 3 years, I have been also released with these circumstances. Professor Constantinescu-Iasi, who was also then admitted to Caracal, has worked with me and Dascăl instructions, as we will organize the MOPR committee, in the conditions at that time, after leaving the majority of the companions of Radauti city. But within the release of a group of 14 comrades, among which, the Professor Bugnaru, all born in Hungary, they were directly expelled in Hungary. And so was Dascal Nandor comrade, who was coming with me and he was released, but was also deported to Hungary, under the Hortist regime with that group.
I came home to Radauti - unexpectedly – to the wife and my children, because at the beginning of October month, I had asked my wife to send me a package with food and clothing, footwear for winter, but it has not been the case, because in the meantime, we arrived home. I passed a few days later to a reorganization committee- Red Help. Then there was also a fellow of Cluj in Radauti, which was still a few years after August 23, an editor of UJUT in Transylvania. He also was part of the committee, including the spouses Seitner and Ploşceac. I have not been a part of the committee, being too known security and police. The first constituent meeting was held in my studio in the evening. To this I worked the verbal instructions, received from prof. Constantinescu-Iasi, consisting of saving money from all sympathizers, workers, craftsmen, even merchants, lawyers, students. I personally raised money for most craftsmen. I sent the money regularly to Bucharest, to a bookseller named Weidenfeld and twice with another delegate, who was an official at the East Bank. These two supporters who have enjoyed all our confidence, have fulfilled their mission up to their removal. This work I did with utmost caution of conspiracy, knowing the consequences that might be - up to 8 to 9 June, 1940 when I was arrested again, this time with a sympathizer named White Password and the father of a member of the Romanian Communist Party - who fled when the border was opened to the city of Chernivtsi.
The camp in Târgu-Jiu
On June 7, three of us were admitted in the camp at Tirgu Jiu, where were transferred all political prisoners in the country - apart from the political suspicious ones in the camp of Vidilin. Here I was received by comrade Comnacu Nicolae and comrade Trandafirescu, to which we reported about our work in Radauti and about the masarera of German troops in Southern Bucovina, next to the USSR border of that time. On the raod of the train I was takenwith, there went 3-4 trains with guns, tanks and German soldiers. These information were well received by these two companions, who were part of the RCP leadership of the camp. I was received in a cell of RCP, for which, the comrade Comnacu was in charge, and for the two sympathizers, I was in charge. On my arrival at the camp, the political prisoners had a pretty good regime, I even can say a tolerant one. For example, they organized dances and music with accordion and some secondary tools. In the interior of the camp, it was a cafeteria with various food for sale, the food which was given from the boiler was pretty good. The food was made by some companions from the camp, whose chef was the comrade Postanski, later Posteucă, the accompanying person of the comrade. Gh.Dej. He was a specialist in making polenta. But after two weeks of the outbreak of war between Romania and the USSR, from June 21, 1941, this regime was abolished and there was introduced a regime of forced labor within the camp, as shoemaking, ropes’ making and, others and also apart from the camp. It was introduced the work in coal mines in Targu-Jiu and Lainici, where the comrades were forced to work under very tough conditions, with rudimentary means of work, and in addition to this, without enough food for this hard work, and another group from the the 6th group, were taken out for various drudgery. The sweeping of streets, loading to wagons, cleaning the snow in the city. Many fell ill in those working conditions, especially from coal, where it was the mean sergeant Trepadus – who was making different baffles and beated those who could not give work the work flow demanded by him. After August 23, 1944, this brute was tried and sentenced by the People's Court to 30 years' imprisonment at hard labor ... I was sent to military garment-sewing department, which was headed by master Napu, another hospitalized in Craiova. The committee of the hut organized us in such a way, as not to be taken to work outside the camp, namely, in the foregoing. There were our comrades that we listen to and were following a certain discipline. In the camp of Targu-Jiu, there was also a group of political prisoners guardsmen, some of whom worked too for military clothing, with whom we contacted, in order to persuade explanations with them, for they were trying to make as many clothing as possible. In time I exlained them clearly by their leader Cretu. This group was released after a few months, after the outbreak of war between Romania and the USSR. I had a link line with the party with comrade Domnacu, who received me here at home, with companion Trandafir. They listened to my information regarding the situation of the movement of German troops to the frontier of the USSR and my work at Red Aid, that I organized since my release from Caracal and which was rated as very well, in terms of conspiracy, especially since we did not compromise ourselves for 8 months. Until the deportation from Targu-Jiu to Vapniaka in 1941, I was in a comradely team and I worked in the workshop of the camp, making different repairs for our prisoners. Here were organized 680 deportees in 7 groups with 100 people each and a camp internal chief, appointed by the colonel Busadescu.
In the camp they were sent comrades from Doftana, who came from Caransebes, who had to execute various sentences of political prisoners, including Lazăr Grinberg, Bernat Andrei, Iozake Eugen and others ...
Romania decided the expulsion of political prisoners in the country, to the prisons- camps in Transnistria, Ribnitsa and Vapniarka. I arrived in Vapniarka, a camp with political prisoners, more than 50 fellows from the areas of Moldavia, Transylvania and Oltenia. All of us being strong and well prepaired, tested the fight of the party,in terms of ideology.
Here in the camp, in addition to the organization demanded by the colonel, we have organized each 3 in cells, by which it was also done a party work and UTC's. We had our own leadership, formed by comrades in Caransebes, and in addition to this, we had in the Committee for Economic Affairs. The camp when we came was without windows, the doors were broke, the military buildings for barracks, with one floor each. The camp itself was out of the town Vapniarka, about a few kilometers away of it. Upon receipt, the colonel received us with these words: - You came on two feet but you will leave in 4 or there – pointing with the hand, to a large mound of earth, where there were buried more than 600 people, who in that camp, have died of hunger and cold, good Hebrews and partisans.
I had an incident in the camp, which ended well after all. Dascălu Paul, our political chief of Vapniarka camp, was changed by our leadership, during Colonel Motora. In Vapniarka camp, there was also brought and admitted a young woman, beautiful, blond hair and a very nice body. She was received by that Dascalu. She was distributed by the camp commander in the hall no. 3, with Russians, Ukrainians, partisans and a few prisoners. She told D. that she is admitted for espionage, winning to this D. his trust and eventually he entrusted her the conspiratorial way of our organization. She was removed from the camp after a few weeks, and the camp commander took some restrictive measures against us, after an incident which was caused by a guard, with the inmates in the hall 3.
The incident was when a man of us came from the toilet and one of the hall 3 threw a stone at the man and the guard who saw this thing through the window, ran out and threw a brick at that man, then some people of the hall 3 went out and threw stones at the security guard. Then, many of us have solidarized with him, and when these struggles were in full swing, there appeared the guard with a first sergeant, wwo summoned us, by dragging a volley into the air, to stop it, which we did. After this event, there also came a few officers and with the guard entered the men room, where they did a thorough search, confiscating a number of knives, pieces of iron and 2-3 axes, with which they cut wood and meat - of lamb – which we bought then from the market of Vapniarka.
After the analysis made by our commander, regarding what did D., saying to that woman who was brought to the camp, the wrong thing, I informed the commander with the data said by D., after which, there have been done some restrictions. On the organizational line of the party, there have been made a number of changes and there were removed some elements, in which they did not have enough confidence, and as interim chief of the camp, it was named one of Transylvania, named Danut, helped by the comrade Vinea Emanuil.
After the incident had with people from room 3 and some restrictions made by the camp commander, we sought to establish good relations with those in the room 3, sending an older companion named Schein - which was in illegality in Bucharest in C.C. and he was at a congress in the USSR, he knew Russian language perfectly and through this man, our relations with this group have become very good, this Schein was a tailor by profession. The New Year’s Eve 1943 found us at Vapniarka, which we've celebrated under rather sombre conditions. However, our teams, have played at the common tables, cheerful and optimistic songs, among which I composed a song, in which there was also a stanza with the following words in the chorus: The year which comes, brings good and freedom to all. And indeed, on August 23, which already found us in the camp at Targu-Jiu, brought us freedom on the day of 23, together with other Romanian comrades in Targu-Jiu.
From Vapniarka we have been saved by comandor Motora and repatriated in the country, but those from Râbniţam were executed by the Nazism at the return of the front.
And since the wheel is round and the top side can come down and the bottom one - up, after August 23, the roles were reversed. The strong and forceful ones were held accountable, those who suffered from them, have called them to account for. During my arrest, I had a dialogue with the chief of Radauti Security. I addressed him a difficult question, to which he considered not to respond and upon his refusal to my question, I had told him the following:
- Mr. chief, you will not stop your entire history, and if I live, we will talk again !. And others stood with him talking after August 23. In 1946 year, when he was arrested and I was free, I was in the town of Radauti, at my house, and he was somewhere in a prison in the country. He was arrested in Bucharest after a physical description of him and of his entire appearance. This description was done by me at the Patriotic Defense, to those who had the task to find out the cops from the former Security. When I found out through a citizen in Rădăuţi who saw him on the former Carol Boulevard, I described him with all the details and after a few days, he was arrested and interned in a camp. At his trial at the law court, there were 4 comrades in Radauti, as accusing witnesses. The chief of the Security, besides the terror against communists, was also charged with robbery and a committed murder, plus the terror he did during the evacuation of the population of Hebrew, more accurately, the deportation to Transnistria and still others, among which he made Hebrew hostages, which he kept for a while in the temple of the town, until the deportation to Transnistria.
At the Patriotic Defense where I worked as head of the tailor's, lingerie and shoemaker workshops, there appeared the wife of this former police chief, who was already arrested, trying to convince me, on her knees, to give a favourable statement for her husband, which I categorically refused, asking her how does she dare ask me, who I suffered so much and for so many years, because her husband?
In those days I remember there was made the refurbishing in that building, where it was a workshop, and received her in the lobby. She cried out loud, but I did not give her anything in writing. The workers who have seen these scenes, asked me who was this woman.
In 1946 year, when I came to Radauti, I got as a the task from the Party (Plosceac), to collect statements of accusation against this chief. I managed to gather fourteen such statements, including his zeal of tracking communists and the terror during the researches .......
My professional work I wove with the work of universal interest, to the support of people, advocating on a social and ideological plan, for the national freedom and social justice. There had to be replaced a society, trusting in brighter horizons. If these come or not, let history and people judge it. I stayed in prisons and camps, because the ideas of freedom and justice were at risk and were threatening the positions of the high placed ones, seeing in me a threat.
Life has swept some and installed another, many dreams were awaited for, great ideas have been betrayed and compromised by another clique and another mentality, with the same defects and the same effect on the crowd. Meanwhile, other unjustified, lived only with the hope, while our lives pass, time is wasted, and after all, even the memories disappear.
God blessed me with a long life, celebrating at Radauti, between, friends, 95 years of life and the divinity still allows me time to live. I let my followers as a confession, my work, saying that each of us must put our shoulder, if we want the society to move in the desired direction for us. Of course the road is not easy, it is done with sacrifices and offerings. Each of us must fight in any conditions, for a high ideal, for the truth and justice to prevail!
P.S. At the last meeting with the son Bondy, his father Osias, confessed him that the biggest mistake of his life was that he got into politics and that he campaigned for communism, since he created many enemies among Jews and Romanians.